Dyslexia Frequently Asked Questions​

There seems to be a lot of confusion around this. 

The following is from the updated DSM-5 (diagnostic manual):

1. Specific learning disorder with impairment in reading includes possible deficits in:

  • Word reading accuracy
  • Reading rate or fluency
  • Reading comprehension

DSM-5 diagnostic code 315.00.

Note: Dyslexia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterized by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities.

There are some groups which describe types or labels such as   “dysphonetic”( dysphonesia)and “dyseidetic” (dyseidesia) however it appears the diagnostic manual does not support these labels.

Parents and teachers are often encouraged to look for help that is “evidence-based” or phonics based (synthetic/analytic). Parents might naturally assume that “evidence-based” means something has been proven to work for dyslexic children. But the reality is different. 

More information
https://literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/ila-dyslexia-research-advisory-addendum.pdf?sfvrsn=85bca08e_4

https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Intervention/737

hhttps://theconversation.com/seven-things-to-consider-before-you-buy-into-phonics-programs-50702

https://www.alea.edu.au/documents/item/1869

https://www.dyslegia.com/evidence-based-information-resources/research-status-what-works-clearinghouse/

There is still no clear explanation that is universally accepted of what exactly constitutes dyslexia.  If there is no universally accepted or scientifically proven cause for dyslexia there can be no universally or scientifically proven intervention for the remediation of dyslexia or reading difficulties.

There is no settled science of reading and that the research base and evidence base on reading and teaching reading is diverse and always in a state of change…

https://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/fyi-reading-wars

See News and Articles for more information.

Evidence based research indicates phonics/synthetic phonics is one of the components  to start off learning to read

However, current research indicates …”if phonics instruction begins early…it should be completed by the end of year one…”(read more https://www.otago.ac.nz/news/news/otago020213.html) ).

Additionally, there is no research to support this is the best way for a dyslexic to read particularly after the initial instructional stages of reading (Grade 1 or the end of grade 2 at the latest).  We have not found any particular “evidenced based” method meets the Institute of Education Sciences criteria as evidence based.

Dyslexia Australia supports an alternative if your child continues to struggle with phonics after year 2-3.  However, we also support personal choice rather than one size must fit all.

More information

https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Intervention/737

https://theconversation.com/seven-things-to-consider-before-you-buy-into-phonics-programs-50702

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar04/vol61/num06/Phonics-Instruction-for-Older-Students%C2%A2-Just-Say-No.aspx

https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2003/04/30/33yatvin.h22.html

https://sbloom2.wordpress.com/2020/03/05/nrp-misrepresented/http://www.schoolsmatter.info/2012/05/naked-truth-about-national-reading.html

https://senmagazine.co.uk/articles/899-what-are-the-emotional-consequences-of-dyslexia.html

https://www.otago.ac.nz/news/news/otago020213.html

https://www.tes.com/news/call-researchers-highlight-negative-side-effects-methods-phonics?fbclid=IwAR3CmFgadCSNVIH2VOi6x_csYClq1MLj8eaKoJMrgdtNt41BJ5iInf-4gQc

https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Intervention/737

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar04/vol61/num06/False-Claims-About-Literacy-Development.aspx

https://www.alea.edu.au/documents/item/1869

https://theconversation.com/seven-things-to-consider-before-you-buy-into-phonics-programs-50702

https://improvingliteracy.org/ask-an-expert/what-do-you-suggest-dyslexic-student-need

https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_ortongill_070110.pdf

https://www.dyslexia-reading-well.com/support-files/orton_gillingham_literature_review.pdf

https://www.otago.ac.nz/otagobulletin/research/otago073434.html

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar04/vol61/num06/Phonics-Instruction-for-Older-Students%C2%A2-Just-Say-No.aspx

https://theconversation.com/why-some-kids-cant-spell-and-why-spelling-tests-wont-help-20497

http://www.dyslexia-australia.com.au/PDF/MULTILIT-Evaluation-Final-Rpt-December-2012.pdf

Orton Gillingham or MSL (Multisensory Structured Language) 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249834136_Orton-Gillingham_and_Orton-Gillingham_Based_Reading_Instruction_A_Review_of_the_Literature

https://escholarship.org/uc/item/3jz3x80s

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00224669060400030501

https://www.dyslegia.com/evidence-based-information-resources/research-status-what-works-clearinghouse/

Research-OG-Thesis.pdf

We recommend you check with the Department of Education in your State.  Education QLD states: A State School … “does not need a formal diagnosis of a learning disability to provide students with support

https://education.qld.gov.au/students/students-with-disability/succeeding-with-disability/learning-reading-difficulties

No. A consultation to discuss your concerns is sufficient. (fees apply)

There currently is no Australian Government funding available for the establishment of a National Accreditation program for dyslexia friendly school.

A qualified and registered Psychologist with experience and/or qualification in learning disabilities can assess and diagnose:

  • Specific Learning Disabilities (reading, writing and math)
  • Attention Disorders
  • Intellectual disability

Additionally, some psychologist provide preliminary testing for:

  • Speech and Language Disorders
  • Central Auditory Processing difficulties
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder

Psychologists use an array of diagnostic tools, including cognitive testing, to look at the whole picture and can diagnose the 3 Specific Learning Disabilities and many of the coexisting conditions.

Speech Therapists are trained to look at one area but not the whole picture.  Speech Therapist cannot diagnose the 3 Specific Learning Disabilities or coexisting conditions.  Additionally, they are not usually trained in cognitive testing.

Specialist Teachers cannot diagnose the 3 Specific Learning Disabilities or co- existing conditions. 

Note: Pre-Screen, Screening or Pre-testing are tools used as a first step and should not be considered as an answer or formal diagnostic assessment of a students’ learning difficulties.

Note: Fees apply to our services. Pre-screening or on-line assessments are used only as a guide or a resource to assist parents or teachers.

UNDERSTANDING DYSLEXIA BOOK

“Lost For Words”

By Brenda Baird

$10.00 Plus Tax and Postage
Please fill in your details and we’ll be in touch